Mel. \.





The Tulu language, one of the Dravidian family, is spoken only by half a million of people, inhabiting the central part of South-Canara. Until recently there was no literature in this language, except some legends written on palm-leaves in the Malayalam character, in the possession of Brahman families. It was only after the arrival of the Basel Missionaries in this district (1834) that some books were written and printed in the Basel Mission Press, the most important being a translation of the New Testament, which was completed in 1847, and of which a new typographical edition was issued in 1859. Other publications intended for the use of the church and schools followed in course of time, and in 1872 Rev. J. Brigel compiled a Tulu Grammar, which we recommend to those interested in that language. For writing, a modification of the Malayalam alphabet was in vogue till the Basel Mission Press employed Canarese characters in printing.

2. The compilation of a vocabulary was commenced some 30 years ago. The Rev. G. Kammerer, who died in 1858, left & manuscript containing about 2000 words. The author took this vocabulary in hand and continued adding to it from all avail- able sources, without in the least contemplating the printing of the same. In ^883, however, the question of printing a Tulu Dictionary was first mooted, and further steps having been taken in the matter, the Government of Madras was pleased to defray the cost of its publication.


3. A Transliteration in Latin characters of every word will, especially for beginners, facilitate the use of the book. The appended list (p. viii.) will show the rules according to which the transliteration has been made.

4. Special attention should be paid to words sounding alike, viz:

* £> pa-Hi* a lizard- ^ palli, a mosque.

e?£ ane, an anna. e?^ ane, an elephant.

muttu, a pearl. -rfoo^ muddu, a kiss.

3, madipu, a fold. skasg madipu, a consultation.

5. Although it is customary in Dravidian Dictionaries to give the crude form of the Verb, it was thought better to give first the Infinitive form, as the conjugation of the verb is depen- dent on the ending of the Infinitive. The Root, however, is given after the transliteration. The three terminations of the Infinitive are as follows:

1. CA3$ uni, as &S -j-e/v>s> = £j;io$ voduui, to read;

2. s3S puni, ^>f + =3otf£^ malpuni, to do;

3. && pini, 5&> +&a =&s>is tupini, to see.

As the formation of the Causative form is sometimes rather intricate and the meaning is often different from that attached to the root, it has been thought best to introduce the causative form as a seperate word.

G. As to the Adjectives, only the simple ones have been especially mentioned; all others which are either Adjective- Participles, or Nouns converted into Adjectives either by different terminations, as the Dative, Locative and Genitive, or by adding Adjective-Participles (^^ itti, «A)^ uppu, ^oso ayi, e/c.~), have been omitted, as the student can easily convert any Noun into an Adjective whenever required.

7. In a similiar manner it ought to be stated that all pro- per Adverbs have been specially pointed out; those, however, which arc cither Datives or Locatives or Nouns with Verbal Participles (£?5 adii) have been omitted for the above reason.


8. The Tulu language does not possess many words with abstract meanings. The Gerund of every verb may, however, be used in this sense, for instance, §Juo£4 wodunavu reading, &&%> 3$ tupinavu observation. Besides this there are some other deriv- ations, as 4»e£>^ vodige of 4/i?ioa voduni, ^^.^ heccige of aSt^aa heccuni, &~^ Jappelu of a^& Jappuni, acsSS dinjelu of aoaos> dirijuni, £^~ tarte of stj^oa taruni, ^oo^ murte of ^o»dos> miiruni, etc. Such abstract words, if not found in this Dictionary, can easily be formed by means of the Infinitive.

9. The meanings of many words might have been consider- ably increased, but for the sake of brevity we have, (especially in the case of words derived from Sanskrit), given only the most usual ones.

10. It should be taken into consideration that not only the different castes of the Tulu speaking people have their own peculiarities of expression and pronunciation, e.g. for "wed- ding" Brahmans say ^os^re kalyana, Pariahs say aio3£> badatana, and other caste people say ^oS3o madume, but that there are also three local distinctions of dialect, viz., a southern, a northern and an eastern one, in which similar peculiarities exist; for instance:

S. &iL3 podepini, £ ^asadijp_: «of tude, ^ ^s> tupini, 0- X. £-±l^ podepini, o ssa tadi, o ?k^ sude, .5 ?ie&s>. supini, »

O J-i !H Q

E. :fi^^» pudepuni, 3 so^hadi, ^ ^^ hude, cs ^ls hupini, -^

11. As to the adoption of Sanskrit, words besides those in common use with the people in connection with their worship, a number of words have been received which are current among Tulu Brahmans only, though not all ; and there are also some words which owe their introduction to Christianity. The Tulu people also use a number of words which were originally Cana- rese, Malayalam and Hindustani; of these only the most com- mon ones have been introduced here.

12. The names of about 600 Plants will be found in this collection. About half are taken from "Five Hundred Indian


Plants" by C. Stolz, and the others have been obtained in other ways, careful investigation being required in some cases.

13. A Supplement of about 200 new words is appended.

14. For List of Abbreviations see the following page.

15. In the preparation of this Dictionary the following works have been consulted: Canarese Dictionary by W. Reeve, Malayiilain Dictionary by Dr. H. Gundert, and Sanskrit Dictionary by Dr. Th. Benfey.

16. In conclusion the author desires to record the great obligations he is under, to the Munshis Messrs. Madhvaraya of Caup, Sitarama of Mulki, Sarvottama Pei of Mangalore, and Catechist Israel Aarons for the assistance given him, and among some others, he is also indebted to the corrector of the Mission Press, Mr. Sivarau, who bas been of very great service to him in carrying the work through the press. He nevertheless regrets certain errors which bave crept into the work, and for which he craves the forbearance of the critic. These have been noted in the Errata.

Mangalore, October 1886. A. 3/.


ace. = accusative. adj. - adjective. ad\'. adverb. ' bet. = better. bram. = word peculiar to Tulu Brahman s. Chr. = Christian. cond. = conditional. c. d. = cum dative. cf. = confer, compare. conj. = conjunction. c. i'. = causative verb, afo/. = dative. dim. = diminutive. def. v. or d. v. = defective verb. e. g. = for example. emph. emphatic. fern. = feminine. fg. = figurative. /. /. = future tense. gen. = genitive. gram. = grammatical. lion. = honorific. imper. = imperative. intj. = interjection. intrg. interrogative.

lit. = literally.

loc. = locative.

masc. = masculine.

neg. = negative. n. or neut. = neuter.

num. = numeral.

opp. = opposite.

per/. = perfect tense.

part. participle. p.orpers.= person.

pi. = plural.

postp. = postposition.

pot. = potential.

prep. preposition.

pron. = pronoun.

pro. = proverb.

p. t. = past tense.

Rom. = Roman Catholic.

s. = substantive.

Sans. = Sanskrit.

sing. = singular.

slg. = slang word.

v. a. = verb active.

i'. n. = verb neuter.

v. reft. = verb reflexive.

•vlg. = vulgar word.

Transliteration .

a. Vowels.



a as a in about.

<^ e as e in met.

a a far.

e (final) as a mat.

i i him.

a e as e grey.

1 i police.

sei,ai,oi ei height.

u u full.

£o o (wo) , o not.

u u rule.

2o o (wo) o note.

ru, vocalised r.

O ou, au ou ., house.

Je) Til HOt US&& \

s u (halfn) as e in the French je.

b. Medials.

n before 3. so, X, ^o, 83.

o = m before ^, r, 2°; ??•

n t*, <$, &, *p, ^sp.

in odo, ti, ®. -rf. -

n u, 3, il tf, re.

8=h, vocalised.

11 55 ' TJ ) T}

c. Consonants.

ka as ka in kalendar.

cj da the dental da.

kha ka aspirated.

qi dha da aspirated.

ga ga in gander.

^ na the dental na.

gha ga aspirated.

sj pa «5 pa /w parrot.

na ng in singing.

cfj pha pa aspirated.

ca ch •„ chapter.

20 ba n ba ^w bat.

cha ca aspirated.

bha ba aspirated.

ja ja in jam.

^ ma r ma in niad.

jha ja aspirated.

o4) ya ya yam.

ria nya in bunyan.

d ra ra rag.

ta the cerebral ta.

s; la la B lap.

tha ta aspirated.

d va va van.

da the cerebral da.

^ sa sha sham.

dha da aspirated.

3^ sa sha . marshal.

na the cerebral na.

ro sa j, sa .) sat

ta the dental ta.

3c ha n ha ham.

tha ta aspirated.

<s* la the cerebral 1.

^ ksha cis ksha in Lakshmi.



a, The first letter of the al- phabet; 2. an interjection of surprise; 3. when prefixed to nouns derived from Sanskrit beginning with a consonant, it denotes negation, as rfsfo truth, 55^^ untruth; before a vowel & 'becomes es??', as

end, ?f^o^ endless, aiika, s. Fight, war, battle, combat; 2. cock-fight; 3. a mark, sign. crooSo a combat- ant, wrestler. rf sro&odjsS a field or place for cock-fighting. -js^rfoS) to fight, to wrestle.

ankana, s. The space bet- ween two cross beams or pil- lars (supporting a roof) ; 2. a quadrate, square; 3. a small room, compartment. sra^os to upset.

^oi)^ ankayana, s. A temple feast; see


ankita, s. A mark; ^//'. marked. £rail>s> to affix one's signature to any writing; 2. to dedicate a work; 3. to put a mark.

^odUto^o ankudonku, s. Crook- edness; adj. bent, crooked.

ankusa, s. A goad, hook used to drive an elephant with. &33)£> ankipuni (®o*), 7-. a. To cipher, count, reckon (in writing).

. A numerical figure.

dod ankoleda mara, s. Alangium decapetalum (hexapetaluiri).

angu, ^. Greediness, eager- ness. — 2ooa^?>, °si^ to be greedy, covetous; cf. rfrJe)^)^ angusavuni 2.0. To reproach, despise; 2. to disregard; 3. to arraign; also ©o?N?^4^5 sooT^ris^^- i



orf anga, s. A limb, member; 2. the body. esoXo&atfo the members of the body. ort^Crs angakarana, s. The in- struments of action, as ^o?j mind, sraw4 speech, SD^^O body. Bg&Jaiiteri,.?. The hair of the body.

angajari, s. A name of i the foe of Cupid. £ angaje, ^. The god of love, ; 2. a son; 3. desire. angadi, s. A shop, stall.

7&8 a, shopkeeper. Wortra angana, s. The space around a temple or demon- shrine; 2. a courtyard, the space in front of a house. esofis^ angatapa, s. Heat of the

body; 2. fatigue. e5ortd?2angadane, s. Thirst. -&e 2)r?> to give to drink. -zJSbrs to drink.

S5or1d angade, ^. The name of a celebrated monkey, the son

Of SS3<0.

Wort si os* angapanku, ^. The hair about the privities, vlg.

S^ angaparlkshe, s. Anato- my.

angapuje, s. Worship- ping the different members of an idol. cr^tj^e! angapradakshane, s.

O* vx\

Rolling the body after the car of an idol or round a temple, as a penance or in fulfilment of a vow; see

,^. Fatigue.

angarakshe, s. Personal protection, preservation, safe-


rtd^ angareke, -f. A coat, jacket, vesture. rtdJ3^0 angaroma, s. The hair of the body.

rt^>^, worterasi angalappu, angalapa, s. Covetousness, in- ordinate desire, eagerness of gain. -~5y-- to be of inordi- nate desire; 2. to endeavour, try. TOoSo a covetous person. angavastra, s. An upper


garment, a towel.

rt^ angasikshe, s. Penance;


2. mortification of the body in penance.

angasuci s. Ceremonial purity; 2. a thrashing, beat- ing.

angasanga, s. Sexual in- tercourse.

ri?ji>$^ angasadhane, s. Gym- nastics, bodily exercise. ;a angasiddhi, J. Prosperity.

ij angasutra, s. The pulse ; 2. a kind of girdle; see 4^ (toco.

angase, J. A particular kind of building, the front part of which is used as a shop and the back part private dwelling; 2. a towel, scarf.

angasonne, s. A sign



made with the finger, head, eye, etc.

angahiifise, s. Corpo- ral punishment. zSotfo^ to wound, punish.

angahlna, adj. Maimed. o angakshema, s. Bodily


anganga, adj. All, of every kind; see escssoes. orreo* angaru, s. The sole of the foot. rec! angara, s. Tuesday.

angaraka, s. A black stroke put on the forehead. Worrerf^ angarake, s. The planet

Mars. esoAstftfOT-d Tuesday. e5orredangare,.y. The planetMars; 2. Tuesday.

angavuni, c.v. (of «>o , To yawn, gape, open (as the mouth).

angi, s. A long gown, or coat.

ohfij^ angidpini (e>oT\S), p. «. To be greedy, covetous; see under escK.

of^£> angipuni (®o^), P. a. To wish, be greedy of. angisavuni '. a. To reproach;

, J1. Reception, admission; 2. acceptation.— ^o tfo^a, esoTsetf&^s to accept, re- ceive.

anglrasa, J. The name of a Hindoo saint.

anguta, angushta, s. The thumb; 2. the great toe; also erooXou.

anguni (®cK), t-. «. To open; 2. to be seized with a fit of yawning; as srooso eso Xoorfo the mouth opens; 3. to cringe.

rto^) angula, ^. An inch; 2. a finger, the thumb, great toe; 3. the name of a saint. rb)3ii^$ angustani, s. A thim- ble.

rta, yoT^^ angela, ange]a, s. A native inch equal to about IA of the English inch; see

yorisS angele, s. A greedy per-

son, glutton. £Sorj> angei, J. The palm of the

hand. Xocathe cavity of the

hand. —3?^ the lines on the

palm of the hand ; see sd^?^.

_ ^OJCT^ cj^s to lick the palm

and back of the hand;y^. to

be greedy. e5orU5£S33ort angopanga (®oX-

W3i-59cX), s. The members of the body. WorU:^ angostra (escX-^^), j.

An upper garment, a towel. S3o2Go2S, esoSSosA^o annanna,

annannolu, J. All the limbs; see

s annana,

irsor £ annanyuni ( To be greedy of, to covet ; cf.



Ai3,annele, see

arica, ad?. So, thus, like, after that way or manner; 2. int. yea, even so. eso^oel there, that side, a little fur- ther on. esctu-DctS if it be so, however.

5-en> A ?JS . esc

oJ G:

rro zfo) for that rea- son, on that account, there- fore. esoell^ such.

ancade, adv. So, just so.

yoe§^ ancane, ancene, «^. Just so, even so. ^otfo^a to do so, to do in like manner. arical, s. The post, tapal. a post-horse. zrooSo a postman.

arici, «a?r.'. Thither, that side; 2. beyond, esoel the other part. «£>c&?K to die, expire, decease. ®o eJcel here and there, hither and thither, to and fro.

aricige ancike, sec

ancidaye, s. A post- man.

ancuni (^c'cS7). f. a. To lurk, fls ^^^^epc^oorfothe cat lies in wait for the bird; T. 11. to be importunate. arijana, sec ®ofsp^.

j anjanadevi, s. The wife of TOorfoj (the god of wind) and mother of

the famous monkey general; 2. the black goddess.

*5ofc553*Sje>Ff anjalummu, s. A kind of fish.

yorffl, §3 o^o^ anjige, anjike, s. Fear, alarm, fright; 2. shy- ness. — sktfo^to fear, be afraid of, be alarmed, be frightened; 2. to be shy. zrooSo a coward, timid person.

S3o£jo3jo£>, e5o^o?i anjiyuni, an- Juni («5c^, e?o3io). v. n. To fear. &5c&o?rooSj a coward, timid person.

esofc:J5rf arijura, s. A fig. zioSr a ripe fig. -rfo-d the glome- rous fig tree.

e3o?§d anjele, s. A timid fel- low.

S2o'3??i arinana J. A collyrium or ointment applied to the eyes (see tJ»a^) ; 2. particular ap- plications, as lampblack, anti- mony etc. ; 3. a kind of medi- cine for the eyes; also &o K£. ^^^ antimony. —7\s^37 nucxb necromancer, conjurer, soothsayer, also s3oo»£croo3o. c^tios) to put a sharp medi- cine or collyrium into the eyes; 2. to conjure.

esofo* antu, s. Gum, paste, resin ; 2. adhesion. i^a to come in contact with, to touch; 2. to follow, pursue ; 3. to stick, adhere to. s^>tl>s> to gum, paste. wotoSbS) to be- come adhesive.



antupattu, adj. Adhe- sive, attractive. oib£> antuni, v. n. To adhere, stick; i'. a. to paste; 2. to attract.

andu, s. The buttocks; eso SK 3jc32 3os3 a stool to sit upon. esoSd^r a small under garment.

o<^anda, s. An egg, that which is oval shaped. a^B the oviparous class, as bird, fish etc.

5' andasu, s. A kind of fish; bet. eooT$oJ.

o& andi, s. A germ of mangoes etc. ~ eojatfos fruits to put forth; also ssoso 3^$. oQro5)Os, ssoS^rsDO* andinaru, andipunaru, ^. The name of a tree, Car alii a integer rima.

ande, s. The vessel of a toddy-drawer for putting tod- dy in; 2. a vessel made of hollow bamboo or nut-shell.

*3oree>;3)£ annavuni (tsosro), T. ^. To raise or lift up the head or face; 2. to peep.

SSorao^DoSj annukayi, s. Cocoa- nut and plantains offered to an idol; see Sooreo^oso. $& &FS>, Tio^?) to offer cocoa- nuts and plantains.

S3oc! anne, s. An elder brother; 2. a maternal uncle; 3. an elderly man.

anta, s. End, finale.

antahkarana, s. The

internal sense; 2. the heart, the mind; 3. fg. mercy; also

£50^8^3 antahpura, s. A seraglio, the queen's apartment.

e5o^€antake,^.Yama,the Indian Pluto.

* antaduru, s. A clue, hint, inkling (as of a secret). os3oo^ antapanta, ^. Competi- tion, vying; 2. prowess.

antara, s. Intermediate space, interval; 2. difference, disparity ; 3. rank. ^o^f , -^o^f, -t^o^^o the inter- mediate posts of a roof. o^dort antaranga, s. The mind, heart ; 2. a secret ; 3. secrecy; in loc. secretly. o^driofi antaragan^e, s. Pistia stratiosa; cf. Se^w. o^ODosd antarantara, s. Dis- tinction of rank. osD^eJ,yo^eJ,s3o5Di>^ anta- rata, antrata, antarashtra, s. Mid-space, mid-air, included space, interval; »o*o»a«da^ lit. 'he is in the atmosphere', used for one who has died and has no rest; 2./g. he is in a dilemma, he is not settled.

antaripuni, antarisuni, antari- yuni (esc^5), v. n. To end; 2. to die; 3. to differ. o^d»F?o antardese, s. The un- known fate.




antarmadu, s. An under roof.

JOF antarya s. The inner part ; 2. the heart, mind. eso3?oOFcr3 antarsuima, s. The beam 011 the walls. antuga, s. Total.

^ antastu, ^. An upper store or room ; 2. a secret. £r antya, ^. End, completion; «;//'. last, final, ultimate. sse> the time of death. cuJ* andu, </. Tr. Yes, yea. eyrfo ;&^ to be true. efLs to be brought up; 2. to be verified, proved. eyoao true. a true word:

O ?iccsodo 0335 ///_ there is no gainsaying the truth.

to prove, improve. ®ccsis it so? is it true? also calling attention.

anduada (condl.form of •» adv. Namely, that is to say.

55 our Co' andudqi (past part, of esc^s> used as) conj. (lit. Hav- ing said,) that, soir «9o55 -c^§ he said that he would come.

?5o<3 anda, s. Form, shape; 2. beauty, elegance, handsome- ness, symmetry; 3. purport. adj. beautiful, pretty; -AST?, a handsome man. &&& to decay, wane.

.rod andacanda, adj. V.-ry handsome, very pleasant.

esodri, S5od=a andage, andake, i1. A blind man, a man of defec- tive vision; 2. a cripple.

r3 andana, s. A kind of pa- lankin.

andaye, see , andasya, see andassa, ^. Darkness, blackness. ~^ a very dark place. 333 hell of dark- ness.

anda, ^^ under es-S

?5oC3«5to andaju, andaji, 5. Estimate. -rfo^^ to make an estimate.

j andayi, ^^ under e>o5. andaye («5c5-ef ;&>), j. A consenter, one who consents; 2. p. t. of wcnB^fj. cf. under

andipunar, see

?3od, S5od!£ ande, ande, /V//. of

entreaty, addressing, calling

attention. aoc2?2i, cJode?o andesa, andesa, ^.

Doubt, hesitation; 2. shy-


sfo^^S andhakara, s. Darkness. y odri andhage (®^). j. A blind

man; see esorftf. yoqrad^raro^ andhadarbaru, ^. A

blind government; 2. tyran-

ny. — crooib a tyrant, mis-


anna, s. Food, csp. cooked

rice. tro^ a gift of food.



F^ annadi, s. A homeless per- son, pauper; 2. a simpleton;

£> ampun, J

e>, ?5oz3j3 amba, amba, ambo, s. Bellowing, lowing 2. a cry, noise. sj3tl>s> to bel- low, low (like a calf).

wd ambate, ambade, s. The wild mango, hogplum. _ •rforf. a hogplurn-tree, Spon- dias mangifera.

ambara, -r. The sky; 2. cloth, apparel; tftj^ceo-rf a purple cloth, esoeo^oaoii a name of Srf.

2o3a£) ambarappu, J-. Hurry, confusion, perplexity. cs^So a perplexed man. e>o&&§ bs>, «9c£55g_ to become per- plexed.

WD3 ambari, ambari, s. An elephant's saddle, how- dah.

ambalu, s. Tipsiness, drunkenness; 2. drowsiness: $3)rf esoao^SsjozS (I <?/- he) told (it) in drowsiness of sleep. ambala, see woeSe;.

ambakilu, s. A kind of verandah; 2. an outer gate or door.

ambi, J. Cow-dung.

ambigare, J. A boat-

man; Cf.' 55oai07\3T?.

^j^ ambige, j1. A hunter; j^

o^o ambila, J. The place a-

round or in front of a tem-

ple; 2. a verandah around a


ambu, j. Water. S3 0200 ambu, ^. An arrow. f\s3

a hunter. 55o2Jori ambuge, s. The flower of

Arum colocosia\ cf. ^e4i esozoo^j ambuni (®o) B., z>. «. To

do, make; cf. XJd.

ambuli, s. A kind of pap or gruel of ragi or rice.

e, s. A goddess, s^rg; a dumb goddess; cf.


zS^DD* ambekaru, s. Walking or crawling on hands andfeet.

_s3zl3S>, _^^s> to crawl. zSs^ ambepu, ^. Mango blos- soms.

t3^> ambela, J^ escBtio. ambe, see ssoso.

ambodi, s. A kind of dance or mock-fight among the Pariahs.

&Qz! ambode, s. A kind of fried cake.

zSjSsOg ambottu, s. Arrogance, pride; also soc^Sjs&j . _s.z?3:s ^j» to be arrogant.

amma, ^. A lady; zireBoiio ^ Kali.

odjsjc5 o2yj ammapaddeyi, s. eu- phem.for Small-pox.

anamayya, int. of sor-

row or pan




amme, s. A father; ^e^o- 3o, 335orfoc£o an elder uncle; elrf oo3o a younger uncle (father's, not mother's bro- ther) ; ssc^odd^ lit. nou- rishing father, foster father, adoptive father; pi. hon. pi. eso3o5.

s^ amottu, see ainsa, s. Part, share, por- tion. — •Sjtfo^s to divide, ap- portion.

,^. A goose, swan; also

S5^rf, amsapada, s. A caret, asterisk; 2. a prop; £/".

ah, aha, «Vz/. Ah! eh!

, akara, akara, adv. There, yonder, far ; also tstt.

akalu, see es^S. Av-31 akasmika, «^//'. Accident- al, sudden, unexpected.

akara, s. The letter w; cf.

akala, «^/'. Untimely, un- seasonable. — ^O^PS premature death.

aklrti, s. Infamy, dis- grace.

4" akrutya, ^. Iniquity; adj. wicked, bad.

, akeri, s. End: in dat. or loc. at or about the end, final- ly; also Ws3£e.

=0,, y^ akka, akke, s. An elder

o tr

sister; 2. an elderly woman.

akkakka, akkolu, -. Part; adv. asunder. Qe &a to put asunder, divide. ^cdjo akkayya, s. An affection- ate mode of addressing an elderly woman. ^o* akkaru, s. An atom ; also


bit of you.

er,£F akkarva, s. The last words

of a dying person.

vj$s akkalu, ^. Sense, intellect,

understanding; reflection. *

UOjS to be out of wits.

§\ akki, s. Rice, corn, used


only in compos., e.g. era era^, a coarse kind of rice; c£o?e>^ cardamom ; see es&. Sr,^ akklka, s. A kind of pre- cious stone, sardius.

,idj£> akkuduni (55^5), r. a. To hang, suspend.

akrama, s. Irregularity, abnormity, confusion, estfj^js S irregularly, disorderly. »


aganita, adj. Countless, innumerable.

& agatya, s. Need, necessity, want; adj. urgent, important. isT3^£> agapauni, c. v. (of esX ^»), To send away, cause to depart.

mni (e57^), v- n. To remove, depart, v.a.i" sepa- rate; 2. extend.




i?5c:9" agapelu, s. Separation; 2. despatch.

agama, #^'. Fixed, immov- able.

* agaru, agalu, s. A fort ditch, trench, moat; 2. wall; cro^rf esXS a saltpan. ^ ?&}$ to dig a trench.

dorto^ agarugandha, s. Red sandal \}QQ(\.,Aquilaria agal- lochum.

^'so4 agasenaru, s. The lin- plant; 2. flax.

^dorfagasemara,^. The name of a tree, Agati grandifiora.

ir^o agastya, s. The name of a Hindu saint; 2. necessity,

bet. WA^O. TJ

agata, adj. Not danger- ous.

agadha, ^. An abyss, adj. bottomless, deep; 2. very dif- ficult, £ agini, j^ w^.

agilu, 5. A kind of tree; Agallochum.

agude, 5. A furnace, fire for warming.

aguru, ^^ ®X5.

aguruni (55Xo5), 77. n. To totter, stagger. ^^ agelu, s. A kind of demon worship with food etc. 3ce3e) worship of demons and ser- pents with food-offering. ^o £>e> &S?JF$> to give such offer- ings to demons, etc.


agela-, agalu-gandha, s. Aloes; sec 59X^0X0^.

agela, ^. Breadth; adj. broad.

rtaocS ageludda, ^. Length and breadth.

3^ agoli, agoli, s. A large vessel.

U>^*rf agocara,^//'. Invisible; 2. incomprehensible. agga ^. Cheapness. «57\s S

cheaply. WAD oso mean. rtejs;^, yns 73s aggalasu, aggu- su, a^/'. Cheap. [^V

i,^. Hunger; 2. fire; bet. aggiyuni, ag- yuni (®fy v-a. To chew, bite. tf agge, J. The shoot of a branch.

agnana, agyana, agyena, ^. Ignorance;

i, J. Fire. r< agra, J. Front, top; 2. a sore-


mouth, aphthae, the thrush;

^s K>Xj, ?j3ir esXj, varieties of

soremouth. s2?5 a kind of

root for soremouth. esr^rirto agraganye, s. The chief;

2. one who is regardless of

anything. ssri 773-23 agrasale,.y. A dining hall;

2. a cooking place in temples. yrt^.agraste, s. A headman, pre-


sident, manager.




rj3:-3C agrara,agrahara, s. A Brahmin village, agha, ^. Sin; 2. passion.

aghora, adj. Terrible, fierce, dreadful.

.- z> acancala, adj. Firm , fixed, decided. ^ firmness, deci- dedness.

acara, adj. Immovable ; 2. inanimate.

acala, s. A mountain; adj. immovable.

-&• acodya, adj. Curious, wonderful.

acca, adj. Pure, unmixed, genuine; cf. s^. :T ^ accade, s. A peculiar kind


of clotb to put on; 2. a wrap- per ; cf. **£&.

i, accada, s. A red mark put on the forehead; 2. a mixture of raw rice and red ' powder; also «^ri-

acci, s. A form, model;


2. a weaver's reed. s^^o^ to print, to coin. 3 3od a model made of wood; an axle-tree. S52o ^fo* accikattu, J. Conveni-

Cc" so

ence, fitness. <z^/'. neat, com- pact commodious.

jaccibella,^. Country sugar,

Ur ^J

jaggory made of sugarcane, ajam, s. The process of di- •ion or consumption; also

&&c. -o-Lr^ to be digested;

to be exhausted.

a.Janta, adj. Many, all: & &fi ^jstSoctlj plenty people come together.

ajante, s. An attendant. o* ajakulu, s. Yawning, gap- ing. —rzEls to yawn, gape. i^oSo ajakayi, ^. Cocoanut. rf^r^ to break cocoanuts (in a kind of play).

ajake, j. Idleness. & cs^ talk. GT^O a babbler. ajakelu, .v. Relapse. o, ajakolu, ^. The rope i?r cane for putting clothes on.

ajane, s. The noise of a thief, goblin, etc.

iS^), S3^e^ ajapu, ajabu, adj. Strange, wonderful.

ajapuni (»-), r-. /?. To select, choose.

ajappu, s. Selection, ^y. selected. i£j?r^ ajamasu, ^. Estimate; 2. deliberation; 3. trace, search.

C;osj ajamila, ^.v; K^-S^OS?. iio>pjjfi ajameisuni, :•. a. To deliberate, trace; 2. to esti mate.

oSoF ajaru, ajarya, adj. Imperishable, not decaying. ajara J. A kind of moss;

ajalu, s. \ portion, part.

a customer. . ajalipi, s. Fate.




ajagrate, .s. Carelessness.

ajamila, s. The name of a fabulous. Brahmin.

ajame, s. A barber ; &?/.

ajike, ajikelu, .sw e93;^£.

^od!^ ajikurve, ^. A sower's basket; <?/.?<? es^otfo^.

ajiguji, J. A crushing. £j5j, S5z3s. ajipa, ajippa, num.


Sixty; 0/.T0 e?32z}. 2^ do, e3^, ajime, ajme, s. A crook. rf ^^ a grinding- stone (for medicine etc.).

ajiru, ^. A blue oyster. ^ an unfortunate hand. e>3§ very hard iron. , ^ZO^D* ajildaru, aji- leru, s. A title, honorific ap- pellation of a master or mana- ger (particularly applied to a headman of the Bants). es^rar, ye^elr ajlrna, ajlrte, s.


S52§aje,.y. The foot-print; 2. foot- step, track, trace; 3. a row; 4. the cloth tied over a cradle ; also sos!, 5§£L _^uo s to make


a row. ^?e;o, see esa^jse ew. —80^ a rope for putting clothes on.

«sc3 ajji, J. A grandmother. 3$ a tale, idle story. b* ajjittu, ^. A kind of dough

o &J

made of rice. ajje, s. A grandfather.

ajnana, ^. Ignorance.

ajriani, s. An ignorant man.

5&3 ata, j1. Obstinacy; <5^. sou. gscSo, ^5reD an obstinate person.

eJ^kJeS atakotale, s. Constant sickness.

ataka, atakavu, s. Obstacle, hindrance. —sSoso^,

to hinder, stop. atamata, s. Deception, pretence.

atara, adj. Wide spread, as the branches of a tree.

atura, s. Poly car paea corymbosa, also sre^oos^.

^. atta, s. An upper loft, gar- u

ret, upper room; 2. ceiling. Uc! attane, s. A household; 2. household things; 3. admi- nistration. —estfX?? articles to be cooked. &&<>3$ household care.

attalu, s. An upstair- room.

j attahasa, attasa, s. Shouting, laughter; 2. pomp, ostentation; 3. delay. ^otfok^ to shout, laugh aloud ; to parade, ostentate. S3^3|,^attalu, s. A good labourer; 2. a messenger sent after an- other.

§5 13 atti, s. A pile, heap of rice.


3.0s attilu, s. Cooking; 2. meal. csoSo a cook.



o^ attuni («>%), r1. a. To put ; to discharge urine,

& atte, .?. The sole of a shoe; 2. support, stand; 3. knot; ^fo i^ir ^£0^3 an upper loft for storing rice; ^^^ a knot or ring of a rattan. ss5 bent legs, bandy legs. £<Qso5 tfo tfo^, _^oS§ 3ros?ovs> to sit down on cross legs.

fe3.Co, attemi s. The eighth lu-


nar day ; /^e^oe^so the birth-

day of ^y^; fo/. w^ao. k3,doo&3, attemutte, s. Arms and

J £J "

legs; 4^05 hands and legs

are broken.

&^ri attolige, s. A loft sup-


ported on posts, temporary gallery.

).r'.7/. To cook. Q^> to marry a man. adangayi, ^. A kind of pickle.

, y^^adaku, adaka, s. Hin- derance; also esw^.

l5 ?3CaS:5!23'3n* adaka, adka, adukajagy, s. An unclean place; 2. a burying place. ffsS a wild unclean place. ^2Jsd adakabare, s. A kind of fruit, Cucumis pubcsccns. tooSo;&£> adakayisuni, v. a. To hinder.

^J^), adakuni(«5^^), i\ a. To throw, cast out; 2. to dis- charge, fire, as t2& «5rf5os> to fire a gun; also

ess adi adagu, s. A ship : cf.

adajati, s. An out-caste; 2. a mongrel ; adj. mixed.

rs adana, addana, s. A shield^ Fin^OvJ adanagayi,

7^7) OSO.

c5«)3 adanadi, ^;

sJ adapa, J. A barber's dres- sing case; 2. a bundle;

adapuni (»^), :-. (7. To plough; <:/". rf^a.

, adabe, s. An adulteress: a^//'. bastard, illegitimately born; bet. so^d. _ K ^fcS^iSo a bastard, an illegitimate person, vlg.

Dj*)^ adammu, s. A kind of fish.

adaru, ^. A thin branch, twig; 2. copse.

adaruni («^^), r. ;/. To crack.

adavi, ^. A forest, jungle.

e5^e>^) adavu, adavu, s. A mortgage, pledge; 2. the thing mortgaged. Aabra, -rotSoatopawn, pledge, mort- gage.

?iJ^ adayisuni, sec

adi, s. Bottom, base; 2. foot; the foot-sole, foot-step. jj'rfo^to fall one upon the other.




> adi, adj. Cooked, dressed, prepared. ®^£ prepared food; a meal ready to be served. adinkara, s. A large ves- sel; also ®^^ ^JSdo adikeburu, s. A kind of creeper, Pothas scandtns; also es^reojs'do.

adikei, J. The palm of the


hand. adj. Defeated, van- quished. — £?ibs>, _ ^jstfos to lie underneath; to be overturn- ed, defeated.

arfok^ adigantu, 5-. The bind- ing in the middle of a sack converting it into a "bissac"; the lower part of a "bissac" or sack tied in the middle. 2. the lower joints of a reed or cane.

rWo adigulu, s. A cook. 2. a priest.

adige, s. Cooking, distil-

2. emulsion or confec- tion prepared from medicinal herbs. $^ a cook.

adicaraku, .s. Ballast.

adinlru, s. Water at the bottom of something, stand- ing water. 2. stored-up-water for irrigation of lower lying fields, -^t^s to store up water in a field after the 2nd or 3rd crop until rainfall.

adipattuni, v. a. To singe, burn.

4 adiparelu, s. A spurious jewel.


adipaduni, r. a. To

stack corn in a straw- (or

bamboo-mat-) granary in a

yard. 2. proceed. 53^^) adipu, s. Sweeping. —crooSj,

jraoSo a male sweeper. jrof

a female sweeper. S5^o3)£> adipuni (®a), "'. «. To

sweep. £3iSzoJ3do£> adiburuni, 7'. n. To


adimudelu, s. Capital

for trading. 2. resources.

^s5o^os adimslu, ^. Overturn-

ing. —cribs, 30^rfos to be

overturned. s^TliS to upset,

turn over.

&^o&^Ddj3N adisudisamana, ^.

Dressed food.

ci>o2oo adumbu, 5-. The creeper

Ipomoea maritima.

ade, adegu, adi'. There. (emph.') just there, to

that very place. Xos.

adenguni, ^

adeka, ^^/'. Narrow, close. 2. small, short, brief. ^j^j adekuni, see ests^os.

adepu, s. The act of shut- ting, closing, finishing. zx> to shut, close.

cl^?1 adepuni, adevuni (est§), z-. n. To shut, close. 2. to roost, perch: odooocli the fowl perches. ~&3)§ to cost: na^®z§4? what's the price? also «£^5 ^e^bs to be shut up, closed.


adda a

r? adesu, aJj. Faded, waned, drooping or hanging down (as one's head).

adeke, s. Obstacle, hin- derance. 2. shelter.

3 adege, «</:'. For nothing, to no purpose. 2. without any- thing more, barely, merely; also «o*

ezle4$» ecS=ol:j^ adevuni, ade- yuni (K:§?). r. 72. To hide. be concealed. 53:1 adka, see es33.

" adkala, J. A cooking shed.

2. an oven.

3 adda, J. A rafter. cd adda, s. Obstacle, hinderance.

adj. Horizontal, intervening. adi'. Across, athwart. £?^$, bsto come across, hinder. to dam up, shut in ; to hinder, interrupt, prevent; to block up a path or entrance; to screen. ^ee^os to cross with lines, underline to oppose, stop, hinder, S)S» to place across. eo to oppose, confront, interrupt. —aaj&Tks to prostrate, bow down (a kind of salutation). —rfos^a to hinder, oppose. yrfc^addantra, s. The torments Supposed to be caused by a demon.

rf addaka, adka, see ®tt.


addakatte, j. A dam.

-a W

f^jriocS addakattimut-

tiganda, J. A female's head- ornament. 2. the head-gear of a devil-dancer.

gD addakatteri, ^. A betel- nut-cutter or cracker; also

addakasabu, J. An im- proper or unnatural profes- sion. adj. Unusual, contrary. ^=05)0^ addakaru, s. The bent


knee, a^ s^^s'o^ft to squat. 2. a crooked leg. 3^30$ to* interfere with. d ^^* addakllu, s. A bolt, lock,


tenon, linch-pin. C^^, addakei, ^. The arm in a posture of defence.

addakolu, s. A cross-


addagandha, s. A hori- zontal mark on the forehead made with sandal paste by certain caste people.

, y^ f\3 addagitu, adda-

t ^

gere, J. An intersected line, a line across another.

addagela, s. Breadth, width, diameter.

addagellu, s. A lateral branch.

addagode, j. A parti-


tion wall.

^^oij addaghaya, J. An un- timely or accidental death. esrf ^jssSjatij S^ri to be caught suddenly, to be in danger of life; to be very afraid.




addacauka. s. A box


in which the linga is kept, addacci (e>ri-»fJ), j. An

13 fcr X ^ ccr/


addajati, see es^a^S.

addana, s. A shield.

e5drari addani, addanige, .y. A bench.

dcl addane, ^ esrfr©. <3 °

^sd addatare. s. An ill-formed



^ |j?;e3, S5c^ |J3^S addatole, ad-

CS (3

datol^i, J. A transverse beam, cross-bar. d rfo&fi addadandige, ^. A kind


of an open palankin carried sideways.

addadande, s. A hand- cuff. 2. a partition wall, parapet, dam.

addadabbe, s. The bam- a> boo pole with which anything

is carried across the shoulder.

c3D^>o3j addanalayi, ^. A stam- mering tongue. 2. lying, gainsaying.

danita,<zdfo. Broadwise.

3ioJ, s3^3Jo-S-0 addapante, ad-

G> ca D

dapankti, J.