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Return to LIBRARY OF MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY

WOODS HOLE, MASS.

Loaned by American Museum of Natural History

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ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES

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PHILADELPHIA.

1862.

PHILADELPHIA:

PRINTED IOR THE ACADEMY. 1863.

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS,

With references to the several Articles contributed by each.

Allen, Harrison, M. D. Descriptions of two new Species of Vespertilionid?e. and some remarks on the genus Antrozous 246

Buckley, S. B. Notes on some American Ash Trees, (Fraxinus,) with de- scriptions of new Species 2

Descriptions of new Plants from Texas, No. 2 5

Descriptions of Plants, No. 3 88

Note No. 2. On Quercus heterophylla 100

Cassin, John. Catalogue of Birds collected by the United States North Pa- cific Surveying and Exploring Expedition, in command of Gapt,

Rodgers, U. S. N., with notes and descriptions of new species 312

Conrad, T. A. Descriptions of New Genera, Subgenera and Species of

Tertiary and Recent Shells 284

Catalogue of the Miocene Shells of the Atlantic Slope 559

Cope, E. D. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diag- noses of new W. Indian and S. American Colubridae 60

On some new and little known American Anura , 151

Contributions to Neotropical Saurology 176

On Neosorex Albibarbis 188

On Lacerta echinata and Tiliqua dura 189

Notes upon some Reptiles of the Old World , .337

Catalogues of the Reptiles obtained during the Explorations of the Parana, Paraguay, Vermejo and Uraguay Rivers, by Capt. Thos. J. Page, U. S. N. ; and of those procured by Lieut. N. Michler, U. S. Top.

Eng 346

Coues, Elliott. Revision of the Gulls of North America ; based upon speci- mens in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution 291

Supplementary note to a Synopsis of the North American forms of the

Colymbidae and Podicepidae 404

A Review of the Terns of N. America 535

Edwards, Wm. H. Description of certain species of Diurnal Lepidoptera found within the limits of the United States and British America,

No. 2 54

The same, No. 3 221

Elliott, D. G. Remarks on the species composing the genus Pediocaetes,

Baird 402

11. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS,

Gabb, W M. Description of a new species of Cephalopod from the Coast

of California 483

Gill, Theo. Notice of New Species of Hemilepidotus and Remarks on the

Group (Temnistiae) of which it is a member 13

Or. the Subfamily of Argentinian 14

Appendix to the Synopsis of the Subfamily Percins 15

Notes on the Scisenoids of California 16

Synopsis of the Family of Cirrhitoids 102

Description of new species of Cirrhitus 122

. Oe the limits and arrangemement of the Family of Scombroids 124

Description of new species of Alepidosauroidae 127

On anew species of Priacanthus discovered in Narragansett Bay, R. I.... 132 Oi the West African genus Hemichromis and descriptions of new

species 134

Catalogue of the Fishes of Lower California in the Smithsonian Institu- tion, collected by Mr. J. Xanthus I*1

Same, Part II 242

Same, Part III 249

On a new genus of Fishes allied to Aulorhynchus and on the affinities of

the Family Aulorhynchoidae 233

Remarks on the relations of Genera and other groups Cuban Fishes 235

Notice of a collection of the Fishes of California, presented to the Smith- sonian Institution, by S. Hubbard 274

Synopsis of the species of Lophobranchiate Fishes of Western North

America 282

Note, on the Family of Scombroids 328

Note on some Genera of Fishes of Western N. America 329

Synopsis of the Carangoids of the Eastern Coast of North America 430

Description of a new generic type of Mormyroids, and note on the arrange- ment of the genus l

On the Synonymy and Systematic Position of the genus Etelis of Cuvier

and Yalenciennes 445

On. the Classification of the Families and Genera of the Squali of Cali- fornia ; 4^3

On the limits and affinity of the Family of Leptogcopoids 501

Gray, Asa. Notes upon the " Description of New Plants from Texas. By S. B. Buckley," published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, December 1861, and January

1862 1G1

A Report upon Mr. S. B. Buckley's " Description of Plants, No. 3, Gra-

mina; " 33-i

Grote, Aug. R. Additions to the Nomenclature of North American Lepi-

doptera 59

Same, No. 2 359

Harden, F. V., M. D. Descriptions of new Cretaceous Fossils from Nebraska

Territory. By F. B. Meek and F. V.Hayden 21

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. Ul

Hora, Geo. H., M. D. Monograph of the species of Trogosita, inhabiting

the United States 32

Lea, Isaac. Description of ten new species of Unionida? of the United

States 168

Description of anew Genus (Trypanostoma) of the Family Melanida?, and

of forty-five new species 169

Description of two new species of Exotic Uniones and one Monocondylcea 176 Description of a new Genus (Gouiobasis) of the Family Melanidae and

eighty-two new species 262

Description of eleven new species of Melanidae of the United States 272

Le Conte, John L., M. D. Note on the Classification of Cerambycidse, with

descriptions of new species 38

Synopsis of the Mordellidae of the United States 43

Notes on the species of Calosoma inhabiting America, north of Mexico... 521

Synopsis of the species of Colymbetes, inhabiting America north of Mexico 521

Note on the species of Brachinus inhabiting the United States 523

Lewis, James, M. D. Remarks on some species of Paludina. Amnicola.

Valvata and Melania 587

Meehan, Thos. On the Uniformity of Relative Characters between Allied

Species of European and American Trees 10

Meek, F. B. Descriptions of new Cretaceous Fossils from Nebraska Terri- tory. ByF. B. MeekandF. V. Hayden 21

Prime, Temple. Monograph of the Species of Sphasrium of North and

South America 28

Slack, J. H.? M. D. Monograph of the Prehensile-tailed Quadrumana 507

Stimpson, Wm. Description of a new Cardium from the Pleistocene of

Hudson's Bay 58

Oa an oceanic Isopod, found near the south-eastern shores of Massachu- setts 133

Tryoc, Geo. W., Jr. On the Classification and Synonymy of the recent spe- cies of Pholadidaj 191

Description of a new Genus and Species of Pholadid* 449

Notes on American Ffesh Water Shells, with descriptions of two new

species - 451

Monograph of the Family Teredidae 453

Walsh, Benj. D., M. A. List of the Pseudoneuroptera of Illinois, contained in the Cabinet of the writer, with descriptions of over forty new species - 361

Warner, John, A. M. Contributions to Organic Morphology : Containing the mathematical imitation of the egg of Planorbis Corneus and of Epiornis, &c 525

Winchell. Alex. Description of Fossils from the Marshall and Huron

Groups of Michigan 405

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES

OF PHILADELPHIA.

18 G 3.

January 1th.

Dr. Leidy in the Chair.

Fourteen members present. A paper was presented for publication entitled Description of new Cretaceous Fossils from Nebraska Territory, etc., by F. B. Meek and F. V. Hayden, M. D.

Mr. Cope stated that he had examined the dentition of the Siamese river snake, Herpeton tentaculatum, respecting which some difference of opinion existed among European herpetologists. He had found the posterior maxillary teeth to be grooved, in accordance with the statement of M. Dumeril.

Regarding another point of difference between naturalists the native coun- try of the Gerarda prevostiana ( Campylodon Dum.) Mr. Cope adhered to the statement in the Erpetologie Generale, that it inhabited the Philippine Islands. Others had stated that the form was West Indian.

Dr. Giinther had corrected the above-mentioned work in its statement that the Rhabdosoma (Catostoma) 1 i n e a t u m was West African. Mr. Cope was able to confirm the Doctor's opinion through specimens obtained in Trinidad, and lent him by Prof. Gill.

January \kth. Vice President Vaux in the Chair.

Twenty members present.

The following papers were presented for publication :

Notes on some American Ash Trees, (Fraxinus), with descriptions of new species, by S. B. Buckley.

On the Leucosomi inhabiting the basin of the Delaware, by C. C. Abbott.

1862.] 1

2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF

January 21 si. Vice President Bridges in the Chair.

Twenty-nine members present.

The following papers were presented for publication :

Descriptions of new Plants from Texas, by S. B. Buckley.

On the uniformity of relative characters between allied species of European and American Trees, by Thomas Meehan.

Notice of a new species of Hemilepidotus, by Theo. Gill.

On the subfamily of Argentininae, by Theo. Gill.

Notes on the Sciaenoids of California, by Theo. Gill.

Appendix to the Synopsis of the subfamily of Percinae, by Theo. Gill.

Mr. Cassin gave an account of a flock of crows, lost in a fog whilst passing over the city early on Sunday morning, the 12th inst.

Mr. Haldeman stated that he had frequently noticed the bald eagle dive for fish in the Susquehanna, when it could not procure its food by robbing the fish hawk.

Dr. Rogers made some remarks on the influence upon the health of communities from the thawing of snow in the streets by means of salt, exposing what he considered to be the fallacies of the common preju- dices on the subject.

January 2S(h.

Vice President Bridges in the Chair.

Twenty- four members present.

On report of the respective Committees, the following papers were ordered to be published in the Proceedings :

Notes on some of the American Ash Trees, (Fraxinus,) with descriptions of new

Species.

BY S. B. BUCKLEY.

The great accuracy of the plates in Michaux's Sylva is admitted by all who have seen both them and the trees whose portions are there represented. That the text contains a few errors is well known, but the figures are true to nature and correctly represent the object described. The wonder is that a work published at that early day, in the infancy of botany, should so well and truthfully describe our forest trees.

It is supposed by some botanists that the fruit in the plate of Fraxinus americanais that of the green ash, (F. vi r i d i s ,) or that the fruit of these two species of ash has been substituted the one for the other by mistake. The original proof-plates of the Sylva are in the Library of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, in which the figure of the white ash differs little from the one in the last edition. Had there been an error, it would have probably been corrected, as several editions of the Sylva passed under the eye of Michaux ; nor does the fruit of the white ash differ from his description of that species. In his account of the green ash, he states that " its seeds are only half as large as those of the white ash, but similar inform ; and also, in describing F. pubescens, he remarks that " its seeds are shorter than those of¥. am e- r ic an a, but similar inform and arrangement." These statements in the text agree perfectly with his pictures of these species.

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NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. d

The true Fraxinus americana (Linn.) is common in the public grounds and on the sidewalks of some of the streets of Philadelphia. It also grows along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers in the vicinity of the city. Speci- mens of it are in the herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences which were collected in the vicinity of Boston, Mass., by Mr. Pickering, from whence it extends as far south as Louisiana, the author having gathered specimens of it in the woods two or three miles west of the Mississippi River, opposite New Orleans. In the year 1790, William Bartram assisted in making out a list of trees to be planted in Independence Square, Philadelphia. (See Penn- sylvania Archives, vol. ii. p. 674.) Bartram's fondness for American trees led him to select for that purpose a great variety of indigenous species, so that the native trees of Pennsylvania are now well represented in this cele- brated Square, among which the Fraxinus americana is conspicuous.

Cotemporaries of Bartram, and at that time residing in the city of Phila- delphia, were Zaccheus Collins and Dr. Kuhn, botanists, both pupils of Lin- naeus, to whom they sent specimens, from which he described many American plants, including probably the F. americana. Fraxinus pubescens (Walt.) also grows in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, and, as Michaux observes, there is little difference in external appearance between it and the white ash. Any one who will compare the plates of these two species in the Sylva will see the striking resemblance in the fruit of each, but that of the red ash is shorter and more pointed. Its petioles are also more or less grooved, and the under side of its leaves and the petioles and young branches are much more pubescent than those of F. americana. Still the two are often considered as the same species by casual observers. It grows in most of the Southern States, and extends as far west as Minnesota.

Fraxinus epiptera (Mich.) was regarded by the younger Michaux and Nuttall the same as F. americana. It has been thus considered by the best American botanists. Had it been different, it would have been included in the Sylva by the younger Michaux. Specimens labelled by some of the old botanists F. epiptera (Mich.) are now in the herbarium of the Academy, and they differ not in the least from the F. americana.

De Candolle makes F. v i r i d i s (Mich. ) a synonym ofF. juglandifolia. Specimens of the latter in the herbarium of the Academy agree well with those of the green ash, to which they have been referred by Nuttall and other botanists. It is nearly certain that De Candolle is right, because he has been able to see both Lamarck's and Michaux's specimens. The green ash grows occasionally along streams from Pennsylvania to Texas. I have frequently seen it on the Alabama River ; also on the Red River in Louisiana, below Alexandria. It is quite common in Southern Texas, where a form of it col- lected by Berlandier has been described by De Candolle as F. B e r 1 a n d i e r i i, according to Torrey and Gray. Personal observation in Texas with one of Berlandier's specimens, kindly sent to me by Dr. Gray, convince me of the truth of their opinion.

Muhlenberg's herbarium, at the rooms of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, contains a specimen of the green ash which has the serrated leaves and both sides of the same shade of green, which led Dr. Muhlenberg to call it Fraxinus concolor, as related by Michaux, who also states that it grows abundantly along the Susquehanna, near where Dr. Muh- lenberg resided. Hence there is no difficulty in determining the true F. v i r i d i s , Mich., specimens of which in the herbarium of the Academy differ little from his figure of it in the Sylva. Therefore the reader may rest assured that the plates and descriptions in Michaux's Sylva of Fraxinus americana, F. pubescens and F. viridis are correct.

Since the time of Michaux, the American forest trees have rarely been care- fully studied by botanists, because they are apt to look on the ground for new plants and flowers, and not up at the trees. Even Nuttall, in his travels, gave

1862.]

4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY 0?

them little attention ; nor did he when journeying contemplate a Supplemen to Michaux's Sylva, which was done at the request of Philadelphia publishers after he had ceased his American wanderings. Hence the volumes of Nuttall have neither the freshness and life of description, nor that fidelity to nature in the plates, which are so remarkable in those of Michaux, who travelled for the especial purpose of publishing a work on the trees of America.

The closet botanist cannot master the botany of trees as well as that of herbaceous plants, because of the latter he often has the whole, but of the tree he can at most possess in his herbarium but a mere fragment, which is far from showing all its important characteristics. He who has made trees his especial study can distinguish the different species even in midwinter, when many of them are destitute of leaves. I make these remarks to show why the two next described species of Fraxinus, which are prevalent both at the North and at the South, have been generally referred to one or the other of the three species before mentioned.

Fraxinus albicans, S. nov. Foliolis 2 4-jugis sessilibus, ant breviter petiolatis, ovatis, aut ovato-lanceolatis, integris vel serratis, subtus glaucis, tarde utrinque glabris, paniculis laxe terminalibus seu axillaribus ; samaris linearibns 12 18 lin. Ion. emarginatis, basi subteretibus.

It is found from New England to Texas, being the largest of the American ash trees, sometimes attaining a diameter of between four and five feet. Its bark is furrowed and of a light grey ; hence it is called the white ash in many places. Its petioles are grooved, and its buds are destitute of the red velvety pubescence peculiar toF. americana. I have not seen it in the vicinity of Philadelphia, nor is there any specimen of it collected in this neighborhood in the herbarium of the Academy. In the herbarium of Darlington, at West Chester, I saw specimens of it labelled F. americana, and it is probably thus called by other American botanists. The West Chester collection had no specimens ofF. americana or F, pubescens.

Both F. americana and F. albicans being called white ash throughout the country have caused them to be confounded, especially where, as is often the case, they do not both grow in the same locality ; but the fruit of the latter is only about half the size of the former, which, with the other distinc- tions enumerated, show that they are very different species.

Fraxinus oblongocarpa, s. nov.— Foliolis 2— 4-jugis lanceolatis, vel ovato-lanceolatis, acuminatis, basi cuneatis, integerimis, vel parce serratis, utrinque viridis, junioribus subtus parum pubescentibus, breve petiolatis ; samaris lineari-oblongis, obtusis vel emarginatis, basi subteretibus, et anguste alatis.

A small tree, thirty or forty feet high, growing along water courses from Pennsylvania to Texas. Its young branches and the footstalks of the leaves covered with a velvety pubescence. Fruit 18 lines to 2 inches in length and 2 3 lines wide, the terete part short in proportion and somewhat winged, leaflets 3—4 inches long. This is the Fraxinus pubescens described in Darlington's Flora Cestrica, but not of Michaux. It differs from F. pu b e s- c e n s in its terete petioles ; its leaves are of a deeper green beneath, and both its leaves and branches are less pubescent when mature. Its samara are longer and nearly one-third less in width, nor are they mucronate, or as sharp pointed as in F. pubescens.

For those who have not Michaux's Sylva, the following brief descriptions of the white and red ash are given.

Fraxinus americanus (Linn.)— Foliolis 3 4-jugis, breviter petiolatis, ovato-lanceolatis, integerrimis, acutis, subtus glaucis, petiolis teretibus ; gem- mis rnfo-velutinis ; samaris lineari oblongis obtusis vel acutis, basi teretibus, subacutis.

Fruit 2—3 inches long, but generally about 2J inches in length and 4 5 lines broad in the widest part ; common petiole terete.

[Jan.

NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 0

Fraxinus pubescens (Walt.) Foliolis lanceolato-ovatis, subserratis seu integerimis, acuminatis, subtus pubescentibus, petiolis junioribus ramisque tomentosis ; samaris anguste lanceolatis, obtusis, inucronatis vel acutis, basi teretibus.

Fruit 2 inches long and 4—5 lines in width at the widest part ; common petiole channelled above near the base.

Fraxinus nigrescens, s. nov. Foliolis 2— 4-jugis, lanceolatis vel ovato- lanceolatis, sessilibus, aut breve petiolatis, utrinque acutis vel abrupte acutis basi longe teretibus, acutis.

This is a common tree in the vicinity of Austin and in Middle Texas along water courses. It is generally small, but is sometimes 2 3 feet in diameter and 40—60 feet high The bark of the stem and limbs is dark grey and furrowed ; hence in many parts of the State it is called the " black ash." Its leaves are of a deep glossy green above and a paler green beneath, and in young leaves the midrib and veins are sparingly pubescent. The terminal leaflet is often much the largest, being sometimes 4—5 inches in diameter. Such specimens I obtained in Navarro County, and also on Caney River in Matagorda County. Its leaves are rarely if ever serrated. The samara are 12 15 lines long and 4 5 lines broad in the widest part ; about one-half of the entire length is broadly winged, from whence the wings are gradually nar- rowed to the terete part. In midsummer the top of the fruit, extending nearly down half of the wings, is often curved. The common petiole is channelled above near its junction with the stem.

Fraxinus tri-alata, s. nov. Foliolis 2 3-jugis, lanceolatis, vel obovatis, supra glabris, subtus parum pubescentibus, ad venas et parce glaucescen- tibus ; samaris 2 3 alatis, obovatis, 6—8 lin. Ion. obtusis, emarginatis, vel subacutis, basi anguste alatis, acutis.

A shrub or small tree, 15 20 feet high, growing on the banks of the Ata- cosa River in Western Texas. Samara in loose axillary or terminal panicles, about one-half of them 3-winged, and 2—3 lines broad in the widest portion ; not terete below ; the wings being attenuated as far as the pedicels ; leaflets 12 18 lines long and 6—12 broad, branches smooth, and of a light grey color.

Fraxinus pauciflora Nutt. has been referred by Dr. Chapman, in bis Flora of the Southern States, to F. p 1 a t y c a r p a. Specimens of the former, collected by Dr. Baldwin, are in the herbarium of the Academy, and they differ from F. platycarpa in having the petioles grooved, leaves scarce half as large and of one-third less width, and much more acutely serrated, and the fruit of the two is widely different. I have not seen a tree of the F. pauciflora, but I well know F. platycarpa, which extends as far southwest as the Sabine River in Eastern Texas ; and it certainly is very dis- tinct from the Florida ash described by Nuttall, nor have I ever seen it assume any such form.

Descriptions of NEW PLANTS from Texas.— No. 2. BY S. B. BUCKLEY.

POLEMONIACEJE.

Phlox macrantha, s. n. Pubescens, humilis 3 6 policaris, ramosa, foliis lanceolatis, utrinque subacutis,* alternis vel oppositis, calycibus parce canescenti pilosis, segmentis lineari-elongatis, acuminatis, corollas tubo gla- bra, laciniis lato-obovatis, apice subacutis, capsula elipsoidea glabra, semina alata.

Prairies north of Austin. March.

Stems diffusely branching from the root ; leaves numerous, lanceolate and

1862.]

6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF

attenuate at each end, sparingly pubescent ; flowers large, purple, disk of the corolla f to inches in diameter.

CONVOLVULACEiE.

Convolvulus (Ipomea) cad do en sis, s. n. Suffruticosus glaber, caule tereti, ramosissimo erecto, foliis lineari-lanceolatis breve petiolatis apice acu- minatis sen mucronatis basi attenuatis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris, vel multifloris folio brevioribus, sepalis ovatis, obtusis, corolla rosea infundibuli- formis 2 3-policaris, stylus elongatus inclusis filamentis duplo longiore, stigma bilobatum, capsula ovato-ellipsoidea, 2 4-sperma, semina ovoidea testa conica pubescente.

Northwestern Texas, near Caddo Peak. June.

A stout plant, 2 3 feet high, apparently an annual ; leaves 2 3 inches long and 2 4 lines wide, tipped with a setaceous or mucronate point ; peti- oles 3 4 lines long ; peduncles 4 lines to 2 inches in length.

Solanace^.

Solanum (Cryptocarpum) Sabeanum, s. n. Herbaceum, raniis teretibus, aculeatis, fuscis, glanduloso-pilosis, foliis profunde pinnato-lobatis, segmenti3 ovatis, repando dentatis, dentibus mucronatis, petiolis et venis aculeatis, aculeis stramineis, glabris, rectis insequalibus, racemis subterminalibus, 5 9- floris, corolla alba calyce fere duplo longiore, filamenta £ lin. longa, anthers lineari-oblongse 6 lin. longse, calycibus aculeatis baccam includentibus.

San Saba County.

Stem 1 2 feet high, with few branches ; spines 2 8 lines long and irregu- larly placed; leaves, including the petioles, 4—9 inches in length, lower seg- ments divided to the midrib and lobed, or with large teeth ; sinuses of the upper lobes extend about midway to the midrib, aculea of the leaves few ; petioles and veins glandular pubescent ; calyx inclosing the fruit increases after the fall of the petals, and is about J covered with aculea.

Solanum (Lasiocarpa) Linsecumii, s. n. Annuum, caule erecto, tereti, 4 6 policari ramoso, pubescente, foliis oblongo-ovatis, vel lanceolatis, basi attenuatis, breviter petiolatis, apice acutis, integris, utrinque puberulis stipulis linearibus vel lanceolatis, floribus axillaribus, pedunculis solitariis seu geminis, hirsutis, tarde refractis, calycibus campanulatis, hirsutissimis, 5-fidis, laciniis acutis, floribus campanulatis, corollse 5-fidse segmentis acutis, pubescentibus, antheris inclusis cordato-oblongis filamentis brevissimis stylo brevioribus, bacca 4 lin. diam. hirsuta.

Llano County, June.

Leaves 1 2 inches long ; peduncles 4 12 lines in length ; flowers 3 4 lines in diameter.

Physalis Sabeana, s. n. Annua, prostrata, ramosissima, glabra, foliis petiolatis, lanceolato-ovatis, basi attenuatis apice subacutis, margine subre- pando dentatis, dentibus lato-obtusis, corolla rotato-infundibuliforme ccerulea calyce longiore, pedunculis axillaribus, filiformibus geminis, calycibus bac- ciferis, inflatis, ovatis, subangulatis, acutis.

San Saba County. June.

Branches very numerous, trailing 6 12 inches ; leaves about an inch long and 4 8 lines wide, margins entire, or with 1 2 obtuse teeth on each side ; petioles 6 12 lines long; peduncles in pairs, 4 S lines in length; fruit glo- bose, smooth, 3 4 lines in diameter.

Nicotiana glandulosa, s. n. Pubescente-glandulosa, caule herbaceo, simplici vel parum ramoso 6 10-policari, foliis caulinis lato-spathulatis vel oblongis, obtusis, sessilibus vel subamplexicaulibus, radicalibus oblongo- obovatis breviter petiolatis ; floribus terminalibus, breve pedicellatis, corollse

[Jan.

NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. /

tubo subcylindrico apiee parce inflato calyce fere duplo longiore, calyce pro- funde 5-fido, laciniis linearibus, subacutis.

Burnet County. April.

Flowers yellowish white, 6—8 lines long.

Gentianace.«.

Erythraea calycosa, s. n. Annua, caule erecto tetragono ramoso 6 10- policari, foliis acutis, inferioribus lanceolato-ovatis, calycibus 5-partitis, seg- mentis linearisubulatis, margine membranaceis, corolla? tubo longioribus, corolla? rosea? segmentis oblongo-ovatis obtusis.

North of Fort Mason. June.

Leaves 8 12 lines long ; segments of the calyx 6 8 lines in length ; corolla subcampanulate, the top of the tube dilated and ribbed, filaments exserted, but not exceeding the segments of the corolla, which are 6 8 lines long.

Sabbatia formosa, s. n. Caule tetragono erecto 8 12-policari, dicho- tomo-ramoso, ramulis unifloris, foliis lanceolatis vel ovatis, inferioribus obtusis aut submucronatis, calycis tubo breve obovato et carinato, laciniis linearibus, corolla fere duplo brevioribus, corollse 5-partita? rosea?, segmentis obtusis vel subacutis lato-obovatis, semina minutissima, testa verrucosa.

Llano County. June.

Stems leafy to the summit, the pairs of leaves being about an inch distant from each other ; leaves 6 10 lines long.

Oleace^.

Forestiera autumnalis, s. n. Foliis minute serratis, ovatis subacutis breviter petiolatis supra glabriusculis, subtus pubescentibus ramulis glabris, junioribus pubescentibus, floret a?state, fructibus globosis caeruleis, matures - centibus tarde in autumno.

Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana. Flowers in August.

Its fruit is very abundant, glomerated in the axiles of the leaves and ripen- ing in October. Shrub 6—10 feet high ; petioles 3 4 lines long ; leaves about inches in length, somewhat cuneate at the base. All the other known species of the genus flower before the expansion of the leaves.

Nyctaginace^e.

Abronia speciosa, s. nov.— Caule erecto, vel subdecumbente, tereti, foliis cordatis, obtusis basi insequalibus, petiolatis, pedunculis axillaribus, vel terminalibus, longissimis, involucribus viridis 5 6-phyllis, segmentis pubescentibus lanceolatis acutissimis.

Near Fort Belknap. May.

Plant 1 2 feet high, branching from the root ; stems bent at base, then erect, with few divaricate branches ; peduncles 4 8 inches long ; heads of flowers large and red ; petioles of the lower leaves 1 2 inches in length, and of the upper leaves 4—6 lines long ; leaves 1 3 inches long, and 6 lines to 2 inches in width ; whole plant glandular puberulant, not viscid.

Oxybaphus pauciflorus, s. n. Glabriusculus ; caule erecto, simplici, foliis oppositis, petiolatis, oblongo-ovatis acutis, vel subobtusis, floribus axil- laribus breve pedunculatis involucri segmentis obovatis, abrupte acutis, pubescentibus, semina oblonga quadrangulata, rugosa.

On the San Saba River, north of Fort Mason.

Stem 1 2 feet high, rarely if ever branched, and leafy to the summit ; leaves 2 3 inches long and 1 2 inches broad ; petioles 4 8 lines in length ; peduncles 3 6 lines long and 1 2 flowered.

EUPHORBIACEJE.

Phyllanthus (Lepidanthus) ellipticu s, s. n. Annuusglaber erecto divari- 1862.]

8

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP

cato-ramosus, ramis gracilibus, foliis eliptico-oblongis, apice subacutis, breve petiolatis, supra viridibus, subtus glancis, floribus axillaribus solitariis nume- rosis, dioicis, 5-sepalis, longe pedicellatis, fructus ?

Western Texas. June.

1^—2 feet bigh ; leaves 6—9 lines in lengtb and 4—5 lines broad ; petioles 1 2 lines long ; pedicles 4 5 lines in length ; sepals oblong ovate.

UrTICACEjE.

Morus microphylla, s. n. Arbuscula 15—20 pedalis, foliis petiolatis ; cordato-ovatis vel trilobatis, serratis, dentibus mucronatis, utrinque glabri- usculis, venis et marginibus parce et minute ciliatis, stipulis parvis linearibus membranaceis, caducis.

Western Texas ; growing in clumps.

Stems and branches smooth, with a light grey bark ; fruit ripe last of May; black and sour, with little juice and deep sinuses between the achenia, which are little compressed ; styles divaricate and obtuse ; leaves generally entire, and 1 1^ inches in length and 1 1^ inches wide ; the lobed leaves are aboxit 2i inches long, the middle lobe prolonged and acuminate. The preceding characteristics are constant, and no person seeing this mulberry in its native situations would call it a form of Morus rubra.

LlLIACEJE.

Yucca longifolia, s. nov. Caule erecto 6 8 pedali, foliis ensiformi- lanceolatis, confertis, rigidis integris acuminatis pungentibus, inferioribus re- fiexis, paniculis magnis terminalibus ; floribus campanulatis, sepalis ovatis acutis, bracteis ovato-lanceolatis acutis margine membranaceis, capsula ob- longo-cylindracea utrinque obtusa.

Western Texas. Flowers in March.

Stems crowded with leaves to the summit, lower leaves reflexed, often, when dead, with their points in the ground. Leaves 2| 3 feet in length, with curved, margins ; fruit 4 5 inches long, cylindrical and obtuse at each end.

Yucca constrict a, s. n. Foliis lineari-lanceolatis margine filamentosis acuminatis in apice caudicis confertissimis, caudex 12 18-policaris, scapus 4 6 pedalis, paniculis magnis, floribus numerosis longe pedunculatis, bracteis ovatis acutis margine membranaceis, sepalis ovato-oblongis, subobtusis, cap- sula subcylindracea in medio constricta.

Western Texas. June.

Leaves crowded at the top of the caudex, which is from a foot to eighteen inches in height ; leaves 12 15 inches long and 4 6 lines broad. It differs from the Y. angustifolia of Pursh in its constricted capsule, shorter leaves and longer caudex. Yucca angustifolia is common in Northern Texas ; its caudex scarcely rises above the surface of the ground, and its leaves are more than one-third longer than our species. The fruit of Yucca rupicola of Scheele, is conical, tapering to a sharp point, near which there is sometimes a slight constriction. The fruit of Y. constricta is nearly obtuse at both ends, 1^ inches long and constricted in the middle.

Jpncace^e.

Juncus filipendulus, s. nov. Culmo erecto, gracili, 6 12-policari et 1 2-foliato, foliis planis numerosis ad radicem, rhizomate muto-fibrosa, an- thela terminali, fasciculis 6 12-floris, bracteis ovatis, lato-membranaceis, acuminatis vel longe subulatis, perigonii phyllis 6, jequalibus lanceolatisve ovatis, lato-membranaceis, subulatis, trigona obtusaque capsula longioribus, stylo brevissimo, stigmatis 3, fuscis tortis pubescentibus.

In the western part of Llano County, along streams in dense tufts, with weak, single stems, terminated by 1—4 subhemispherical heads of flowers,

[Jan.

NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 9

which, when later with mature fruit, are of a light straw color ; seeds ovate, with reddish brown points ; heads of flowers about 5 lines in diameter ; radi- cal leaves 3 5 inches long.

Juncus d iffusis simus, s. n. Culmo erecto 2 3 pedali, foliato, foliis oblongo linearibus acutis, septis transversis inconspicuis, vaginis compressis acutis 1 3-policaribus, anthela terminali decomposita et lato filamento-ramo- sissima, fasciculis 5— 7-floris, foliis floralibus ovatis membranaceis acutis, se- palis sequalibus lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, margine membranaceis, capsula oblonga trigona subacuta, perigonio fere duplo longiore, semina ovoidea utrinque subobtusa.

Northwestern Texas.

Panicle widely diffused, some of its filiform brandies being more than a foot in length ; heads subhemispherical, yellowish brown and 1 2 inches apart from each other. Whole plant weak and not rigid ; capsules 4 lines long, gradually attenuated to a blunt or subacute point, and nearly double the length of the si-pals ; seeds ovoid, tailless, subobtuse, yellowish brown, with the ends dark brown.

COMMELYNACEJE.

Tradescautia speciosa, s. nov. Caule erecto simplici vel subramoso, glabro, foliis ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, acutis margine ciliatis, subamplexi- caulibus, radicalibus petiolatis, umbellis terminalibus, ad basin pilosis sessili- bus, pauciHoribus breve pedicellatis, sepalis lanceolatis subacutis margine membranaceis, petalis lato-ovatis roseis.

Corpus Cbristi. May.

Plant 4 6 inches high, smooth, excepting the margins of the leaves, the pedicels and the base of the calyx. Radical leaves, including the petioles, 3 4 inches long and 1 inch wide ; petioles 6 12 lines in length ; stem leaves 1 2 inches long and 1 inch broad ; the upper pair of leaves inclosing the umbel about an inch long and nearly an inch in width, acute ; flowers ex- panded 4 6 lines in diameter, rose colored ; pedicels 1 3 lines in length.

CYPERACE.E.

Cyperus retroflexus, n. s. Rhizomate bulboso ; culmis erectis triquetis 1J 2^-pedalibus basi foliatis ; foliis 12— 15-policaribus margine et carina gla- briusculis ; involucre 5— 7-phyllo ; foliis 2 inferioribus umbella longioribus ; umbella5 7-radiata ; radiis insequalibus, exterioribus 2 3-policaribus; spicu- lis congestis tarde reflexis teretibus acuminatis 2 3-floris basi bracteatis ; brac- teis ovatis albo-hyalinis obtusis ; squamis oblongo-obovatis vel lanceolatis acutis lateralibus membranaceis ; carinis viridiscentibus ; caryopsi elongata trigona 3 lin. longa, breve apiculata glabra ; stylo 3-fido.

Northern Texas. June.

Spikes green ; scales 3 4, the lower pair unequal, one being about one- third longer than the other, and clasping the middle of the spikelet, which is commonly 2-seeded ; spikelets 3—4 lines long ; terminal scale long, acu- minate.

Cyperus ruficomus, n. s. Culmis erectis triquetis 2 3-pedalibus basi foliatis ; foliis culmo brevioribus ; umbella 5 9-radiata ; radiis insequalibus 1— 5-policaribus involucro 5 7-phyllo ; phyllis linearibus planis insequalibus, longioribus 7 9-policaribus ; spiculis 7 9 lin. longis, remotiusculis 20 30 ; inferioribus 2 3-congestis et pedicellatis circum 20-squamatis ; squamis ovatis acutis marginibus albo-rufescentibus carinis viridiscentibus ; caryopsi lineari trigona apice acuta.

San Saba County. June.

Spikelet subterete and little more than a line in diameter. The long leaves of the involucre 3—4 lines wide. A linear setaceous leaf 5 6 lines long at the base of three or four of the lower spikelets. Interior bracts none.

1862.]

10 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF

Cyperus Heermannii, n. s. Culmis erectis 2— 3-pedalibus, trigonis ; umbella 11 13 radiata ; radiis insequalibus 2-interioribus sessilibus ; longi- oribus subsequalibus 7 8-policaribus ; involucro 9 13 phyllo ; phyllis in- sequalibus, longioribus 9 12-policaribus ; radiis 15 17-stachyis, basi confertis apice divergentibus 15 25-floris ; squamis ovatis acutis lateralibus rufescen- tibas margine albescentibus ; carinis viridiscentibus ; involucelli phyllis numerosis linearibus, vel setaceis ; longioribus 1 2-policaribus ; achenio ob- tuso ellipsoideo et obtuso trigono stylo profunde trifido.

California. Dr. Heermann.

Spikelets densely aggregated in nearly tbe same plane, with numerous linear or setaceous leaves interspersed. Often tbe beads of spikes are proli- ferous, with a ray about an inch in length, crowned with spikelets.

Chsetocyperus (Elseocharis) membranaceus, n. s. Culmis filiformibus erectis, crespitosis, 2 3-policaribus planis ; spica oblongo-ovata 4 12-squa- mata, acuta imbricata ; squamis ovatis, acutis vel subobtusi lateralibus dense albo-hyalinis dorsis stramineis ; achenio lato-ovoideo nigro, subacute triangu- lari et abrupte in tuberculum angustum erosum rostrato ; setis nullis.

Llano County. Grows in small tufts.

Spikes greyish white 3 4 lines long, achenia quite as broad as long, dull black, not shining. A few of the scales are tinged on the back with brownish red, but most of the backs are straw colored and not keeled ; the back of the lower scale is green.

Eleocharis cylindrica, n. s. Culmis planiusculis filiformibus 9 12-poli- caribus ; spica cylindrica subacuta 4 7 lin. longa ; squamis ovatis vel ovato- lanceolatis acutis inferioribus obtusis rufescentibus ; margine albo-hyalinis carinis stramineis ; achenio parvo ovoideo obtuse triangulari glabro tuberculo magno subconico apiculato ; setis 3 6 caducis nucula brevioribus.

Northern Texas. June.

Spikes 1 2 lines in diameter. Stems below immersed in water. Nuts pale yellow, small ; tubercle large in proportion, contracted at the base and shortly apiculated.

Eleocharis microformis, n. s. Culmis setaceis csespitosis erectis 1 2- policaribus, planiusculis ; spicis ovatis obtusis vel subacutis 10 12-squa- matis ; squamis ovatis acutis vel subobtusis, rufescentibus ; carinis virides- centibus ; achenio glabro nitido lato obovato pyriformi ; setis (i nuculam sequantibus ; tuberculo lato applanato breve apiculato.

Northern Texas. June.

Mature achenia black and shining, crowned with a broad white tubercle, with a short point in the centre. Scales reddish brown, with green keels.

Eleocharis acutisquamata, n. s. Culmis striato-sulcatis erectis filifor- mibus 10 15-policaribus ; spica oblongo-ovata acuta 15 40-squamata ; squa- mis ovato-lanceolatis, acutis rufescentibus apice membranaceis ; achenio obo- vato pyriformi et minute reticulato ; tuberculo breve conico apiculato ; setis nullis ; spica 4 lin. longa.

San Saba County. May and June.

Rhizoma large and creeping ; achenia pale yellow, biconvex tubercles brown.

On the Uniformity of Relative Characters between Allied Species of European

and American Trees.

BY THOMAS MEEHAN.

To whatever principles the origin of species may be owing, the following observations tend to show that their respective differences are the result of one unvarying law.

Noticing that European willows, oaks and other trees retained their green

[Jan.

NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA.

11

leaves in the autumn much longer than closely allied American species grow- ing near them, and that this could not be owing to immediate climatic influ- ences, as Gleditschia triacanthos, Robinia pseudacacia, and other American trees, with no European representatives, possessed the same characters, I was led to believe it was rather the result of inherent specific peculiarities, which further investigation tended to confirm.

It will be seen from the subjoined table that on any positive difference being ascertained to exist between an American and a closely allied European species, the relative differences between all other closely allied species of the same differing geographical distribution are of the same character and nature.

For instance, the European Plane (Platanus orientalis) maybe distinguished by a compactness of growth when compared with the diffuse habit of the American species, and the same compactness and diffuseness will be found to prevail in all the respective European and American species of other genera.

The nut of the European chestnut {Castanea vesca) is characterized by large size ; the American ( C. Americana) is much smaller, and the seeds of all allied European and American species bear the same relative proportions ; and so of other characters that I have compared, and which I may enumerate as follows :

1st. Color and persistency of the leaves. In which the American species change to some brilliant hue, and fall comparatively early, while the European co-species fade black, and are retained to a later period of the season.

2d. Outline of the leaves. In which the American species have the leaves less lobed, less deeply toothed or serrated, less in width in proportion to their length, and less petiolate than the European species.

3d. Size of the seeds. In which the American are smaller than the European.

4th. Habit of growth. In which the American is more diffuse, has much fewer branchlets, and more and more vigorous main branches, and the outline more irregular and informal than European trees.

5th. Size of the buds. In which the American have smaller ones than the European, and usually set at wider spaces between the nodes.

The observations finally made were taken at Germantown, Pa., during the first week in November, 1861.

European Species. Laiix Europaea. Quereus robur.

" cerris. Betula alba. Populus tremula.

" dilatata. Morus alba. Euonymus Europaeus. Spiraea salicifolia. Berberis vulgaris. Carpinus betulus. Cornus sanguinea. Ulmus campestris. Corylus avellana. Alnus glutinosa. Castanea vesca. Pyrus malus. Tilia Europaea. Ulmus montana. Fraxinus excelsior. Cerasus padus.

" mahaleb. Fagus sylvatica. 1862.]

American species.

Larix Americana.

Quereus alba.

" macrocarpa.

Betula populifolia.

Populus grandidentata. " Caroliniana.

Morus rubra.

Euonymus atropurpureus.

Spiraea carpinifolia.

Berberis Canadensis.

Carpinus Americanus.

Cornus sericea.

Ulmus Americana.

Corylus Americana. Alnus serrulata. Castanea Americana. Pyrus coronaria. Tilia Americana. Ulmus fulva. Fraxinus acuminata. Cerasus Virginiana.

" serotina. Fagus ferruginea.

12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF

European species. American species.

Cercis siliquastriuni. Cercis Canadensis.

Celtis australis. Celtis occidentalis.